KPOP

KPOP
kpop craze

Tuesday, February 22, 2011

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


The new generation today has been exposed already to the different kinds and genres of music. From time to time music has been improved and made more entertaining than before. This has evolved from the native type of music to the modern kind of music in which most of the teenagers at present seems to like and appreciate. Most of the music nowadays are already been mixed up. Some music are from other countries that become popular and known to other neighboring countries and is still getting much popularity worldwide.

Butler (2006) defines music as “an art of arranging across time”. Music is part of almost every culture on Earth but it varies widely among cultures in means and structure. Music is a language of human figure of communication with well developed rules of structure much like a form of sentence structure. An individual through music would be making interpretations based upon speech patterns like loud or soft rapid and bitten off, slow or smooth.

According to Greeks (20th century), the beginning of music can be solved by thought where ancient people make up chants of religion, war, love and death through direct organization of words with the combination of body movements. Greek philosophers assumed that listening to music based on certain modes in use at that time was beneficial to the enhancement of the young person’s character. With music, an individual can develop one’s potential and positive outlooks in life (Butler (2006).

Music is “a mode of thought, a way of thinking in tones”. In addition, the musical mode of thought is a complex means of “expressing a thought for the suggestion of ideas of beauty and emotions” (Ferguson, 1959). With the help of rhythm, the message in music is delivered conveniently for rhythm contains everything that pertains to the forward movement of music in time. Rhythm is the pattern of beats in a piece of music.

Mayol (1990) stated that “music has existed from time immemorial: archaeologists have unearthed traces of music in the most ancient society, ethnomusicologists have found it in even the most primitive tribal culture and scientists have claimed it present in space. Yet, no one has been able to established precisely when, where, why or how music originated.

Mayol (1990) also claimed that there are recent theories proposing that in all cultures, music originated in a similar manner which was from a universal source (monogenesis) (p.3). Ordinary people became uninterested with its beginning that for them it is a nonsense and worthless. But as time pass by, its implication and origin have brought sensation to their lives. And so, this made them vary their preferences towards the different kinds of music leading to other individuals conducting research and other related studies regarding with these behavior and choices.

At present, there are already many types of music known to be famous. One of which is the popular music. Popular music pertains to a kind of music that is produced for a broader audience. This includes jazz, rock, rap music and many more. Popular music has three of the most important elements and these are language, beat and tune. This popular music originated in America in the year 1850-1950 (Yudkin,1996).
In addition, popular music is typically vocal where everybody can sing more or less, and it has no formal training because it is intended to appeal to the widest possible audience. Until now, this particular music is still being acknowledged and appreciated worldwide including Philippines as well as other European countries. (Yudkin,1996).

Regarding this popular music, Korean Pop or known as K-Pop is one of today’s hits and famous music worldwide. Korean pop music is the well kind of music in the country of South Korea today. K-pop music is just similar to western music. The only difference is their lyrics which are in the form of Korean. Hallyu is the word that means Korean wave. Part of the Korean wave is their overwhelming success not just in music but as well as in South Korean dramas and movies. The term Korean pop music does not only pertains to music but with accompaniment of movement that makes South Korea popular in Asia and neighboring countries from 1990’s until present (Villano,2010).

According to Hicap (2010), the making of Korean pop music also involves attractive young stars and their unique moves in dancing accompanied with how they dress up. One of the newest and most famous is Rain, the male singer who became artist after his shooting in the Korean Drama Full House with the actress Song Hye Kyo. BoA is one of Korea’s top female singers who has topped the charts in Korea, then Japan and released an album in US. BoA worked in partnership with western artists and was cited as an influential artist in the 2004 MTV Asia awards.

Others are bands and groups which are today’s most known. One of them is the female group 2nel having a member who became famous in the Philippines before she reached her fame in Korea. Her name is Sandara Park. The next known group is the Wonder Girls, also a female group who was famous for their popular hit “Nobody” which was loved by many Filipinos. Other group includes SS501, a male group that become famous after the inclusion of some of their songs in the soundtrack of the popular Boys Over Flowers and having their member Kim Hyun Jung. Todays’ known female group, the Girls Generation who were trained in various aspects of the performing arts, has its own TV Series and they endorse products in Korea. There are still many known groups and artists that contributed to the success of the Korean Pop Music such as the Super Junior and Shinee group. These bands and groups made Korean Pop music be known (Hicap, 2010).

Younger Korean musicians have already gained reputation, much popularity and appreciation as top performers in both concert and entertainment fields. In relation to this, youth around Asia especially Filipino youths have been affected by the outstanding effect not just to the K-pop music but also to other music from other countries (Kim,1985).

A study by Fritzie Joy J. Dungog (1997) distinguishes the influence of Pinoy alternative music to the attitude of students towards local government officials. Dungog used a three part questionnaire that asked questions pertaining to personal data, exposure questions and an attitudinal test. The questionnaire was distributed to 284 respondents.

Based on the questionnaires she gave to the 284 respondents, the researcher found out that the respondents showed a high level of exposure to Pinoy Alternative Music and that the majority of respondents exhibited a positive approach towards their city government officials. The study also revealed that “there were no significant relationship between the attitudes of respondents toward their city local government officials and the frequency exposure to Pinoy Alternative Music”(Dungog, (1997)).

Dino Arnaldo A. Karganilla (1994) determines the effect of exposure to foreign music in FM stations on the perception of high school students towards Filipino music. The study covered a sample size of 111 fourth year U.P. College High School attendees through a two-page questionnaire which were given to those 111 respondents. The instrument that Karganilla used in his study was a two paged questionnaire composed of three sections with an additional information part.

The researcher discovered that the respondents had a low level of exposure to foreign music and that the respondents had a favorable insight towards Original Pilipino Muisc (OPM). There was no connection between the respondents’ sexual category and rank of exposure that could influence their view towards Original Pinoy Music (OPM) and in turn, the exposure to foreign local FM stations did not bear a negative impact of the respondents toward Original Pilipino Music (OPM).

A supplementary research study by Jessica Servande Losorata (2008) verifies whether Cebu local rock music airplay on Monster Radio BT 105.9 has either a positive or a negative impact on selected rock bands that have played for Harakiri Mosh Production. “A Focused Group Discussion (FGD) with selected rock bands that have played for Harakiri Mosh Production was the main method in gathering the data. A separate Focused Group Discussion (FGD) with Monster Radio BT 105.9 listeners and online interviews with the station’s manager and a representative of Harakiri Mosh Production were also conducted to gather additional information” (Losorata, (2008)).
The researcher found out that the respondents were not devoted clients of radio. They had a low level of exposure to radio but their consciousness of its Cebu local rock music airplay was positive. The results of the study was been supported after the researcher interviewed Paolo Valera, known as Paolo Walker, the station manager of Monster Radio BT 105.9 together with Shanette G. Mancao, one of the founder of Harakiri Mosh Production. For the respondents, the interviews and interactions were done through internet because of the interviewees schedule and activities.

Another study by R.S. Holganza (1987) was all about the relationship between the exposure to foreign music in FM stations and the attitude of fourth year high school University of San Jose-Recoletos (USJ-R) students towards Original Pilipino Music (OPM). This particular research was conducted to determine if there is a connection between the exposure to foreign music in local FM stations and the attitude of fourth year USJ-R students toward OPM. The research was conducted inside the University of San Jose-Recoletos (USJ-R) High School campus using 100 fourth year male and female respondents from the different economic levels. The respondents exposure to foreign music was determined by the number of hours spent listening to FM stations while the respondents attitude was measured by four OPM-related statements. The respondents in this specific study belonged to the same age level which was 16 to 17 with same educational attainment (fourth year high school).

The researcher found out that the respondents were exposed to local FM stations whose programming was more on foreign music but the playing of foreign songs in FM stations seems not to decrease or slow down the popularity of the Original Pilipino Music (OPM). The amount of exposure to FM stations influenced the respondents’ liking of Filipino songs and the respondents over-all choice of song as verified by the results of the chi-square test was the Original Pilipino Music (OPM).

A related study was conducted by Minni K. Ang and Miranda P. Yeoh (year) concerning the music preferences of Malaysian students and KBSM Curriculum implications (explain). Ang and Yeoh organized this by preparing ten selection of ethnic-based Malaysian music and twenty selection of non ethnic related music consisting of ten popular music selections and ten western art music selections were used. Ratings of preferences, familiarity and musical training were gathered from 139 randomly selected teenage students of two public schools in Serdang, Malaysia.

The researchers discovered that the respondents preferred non-ethnic related music especially popular music. In addition, the interpreted results proved that the main factor affecting their preference for both ethnic-based Malaysian music and non ethnic-related music was their familiarity of the music (M.K. &Yeoh, 2002).
These past studies serve as a basic foundation to this recent research which determines if factors like rhythm and music composition of Korean Popular Music really affect the Pinoy teenagers’ preference towards Original Pilipino Music and if this would affect their sense of nationalism.

According to Malm (1977), there are explanations about the behavior observed with regards to the preference of Filipino youth. Malm said that early in the history back to the time where Philippines was colonized, the Filipino music traditions were mixed with Spanish-type of music which was distributed into the country. “The Spanish influence becomes even stronger as one move toward Philippine urban culture” Malm (1977).

Malm (1977) claimed that Filipino possesses an attitude which comes from the experience of colonization, wherein it has adapted many music cultures from different neighboring countries in the history. Through this fact, it can now be related to the issue of choice of music that Filipino youth is experiencing with interest, specifically its fascination towards Korean pop music. Additionally, they ought to love the unfamiliar type of music with amazement and astonishment to that kind of music. Regarding this concept, the popularity of the native music will declined slowly until it will no longer be known.

According to Mayol (1990), the shifting of the Youth’s musical preference is due to the music’s influential power that serves as a “shaping force in determining the nature of the moral character of the populace. The power of music affecting a person was derived from its structure.

The above mentioned cases and studies have shown that there is an effect or impact regarding the preference of Pinoy teenagers toward music. And the above researches would aid the current researchers to accomplish their study about the Pinoy Youth’s Preference for Korean Pop Music and how does it affect their taste for Original Pilipino Music (OPM). This would serve as guiding principles in this latest study.



Bibliography


Books:

Hoffer, C.R. (1989). The Understanding of Music (sixth edition): Personal Preference in Music. United States of America. Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc.

Kim, E. (1985). Facts About Korea: Music and Dance. Seoul, Korea

Malm, W. (1997). Music Cultures of the Pacific, the Near East and Asia (second edition): Philippines. Eaglewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632. Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Mayol, P. (1990). The Development of Western Music: Heritage from Antiquity. United States of America. Wm C. Brown Publishers

Yudkin, J. (1996). Understanding Music: Popular Music. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Prentice-Hall, Inc.


Unpublished Materials:

Ang, M.K. & Yeoh, M.P. (2002). Music Preferences of Malaysian Students and KBSM (Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah or Integrated Secondary School Curriculum) Implications. Serdang, Malaysia. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from http://www.musicmall-asia.com/minni/Educ/2002.pdf

Dungog, F.J.J. (1997). Influence of Alternative Music on Students’ Attitude Towards Local Government Officials. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. University of the Philippines Cebu College

Holganza, R.S. (1987). The Relationship Between the Exposure to Foreign Music in FM Stations. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. University of the Philippines Cebu College

Karganilla, D.A.A. (1994). Relationship Between the Exposure to Foreign Music and the Perception of Fourth Year UP High School Students Towards Filipino Music. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. University of the Philippines Cebu College

Losorata, J.S. (2008). The Impact of Cebu Local Rock Music Airplay on Monster Radio BT 105.9 on Cebu Rock Bands. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. University of the Philippines Cebu College


Online Periodicals:

Hicap, J. (2010). Filipinos Get Hooked on Kpop Craze. Korea Times. Retrieved December 7,2010 from http://koreatimes.co.kr./www/news/nation/2009/09/117_51347.html

Villano, A. (2010). The Korean Pop Invasion. The Philippine Star. Retrieved December 12, 2010 form http://dancepinoy.com/forum/music-lifestyle/k-pop-invasion-in-the-philippines-2


Internet Sources:

______. (2006). Kpop: History and Globalization. Retrieved November 24, 2010 from http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/korean+pop

______. (2007). Music of Korea. Retrieved November 24, 2010 from http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/korean+music

______. (2008). Kpop’s History and Definition. Retrieved November 27, 2010 from http://www.asiafinest.com/review/kpop.htm

______.(2007). Korean Music Popularity. Retrieved November 27, 2010 from http://www.chinatownconnection.com/korean-music-popularity.htm

______.(2009). Korean Pop (K-pop). Retrieved December 1, 2010 from http://www.123helpme.com/preview.asp?id=35074

Xiong, Y. & Li, S. (2007). Effect of South Korean Pop Culture on the Potential Tourists from Chinese Mainland. Retrieved December 16, 2010 from http://www.docstoc.com/docs/19647133/ effect-of-south-korean-pop-culture-on-the-potential-tourists-from

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